The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram. They measured the willingness of study participants, men from a diverse range of occupations with varying levels of education, to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts conflicting with their personal conscience; the experiment found, unexpectedly, that a very high proportion of people were prepared to obey, albeit unwillingly, even if apparently causing serious injury and distress. –Wikipedia
Have you ever considered how two people’s perceptions of a workplace can be entirely different?
While Jane perceives the workplace as open and inclusive, John in the next office feels that he is never heard, and he notices that Fatima, in particular, is not included.
How can the same workplace be perceived so differently?
…The goal for people seeking power is to gain influence, control, social status and prestige. It is natural for such people to demand what they consider to be their rightful place. They will try to gain influence within processes and get resources for themselves. They will feel that they are heard and taken seriously and, therefore, perceive the situation as just. –Science Daily
Games are like any unscripted situation in which no one knows the results until they occur. Although this is what makes sports (and reality shows) so exciting, it’s also what drives fans to distraction. They want to know the outcome, and they want that outcome to be favorable. They also know realistically that they can’t control it, though, and this is the crux of the superstition. If I can’t actually influence an event’s outcome, but I think I can (through my superstition), I’ll at least feel a little bit less anxious..
For many people, not having control over an outcome is a frightening proposition. For these uncontrollable situations in life, the more important it is, the more likely you will be to try to dream up ways to control its outcome even though it may be unrealistic for you to do so. –Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Ph.D.
The silent treatment is part of what’s called a “demand-withdraw” pattern. It happens when one partner pressures the other with requests, criticism or complaints and is met with avoidance or silence…
“Partners get locked in this pattern, largely because they each see the other as the cause,” says Schrodt. “Both partners see the other as the problem.” Ask the wife — whom research shows is more often the demanding partner — and she’ll complain that her husband is closed off, emotionally unavailable. Ask the husband and he’ll say he might open up if she’d just back off..
Regardless of the role each partner plays, the outcome is equally distressing..
“One of the most important things we found is that even though wife-demand/husband-withdraw occurs more frequently, it’s not more or less damaging,” he says. No matter what part each partner plays, it’s the pattern itself that’s the problem. “It’s a real, serious sign of distress in the relationship.”-Science Daily
Criminologists at the University of California Irvine convinced a group of college students that they had been molested by a person at Disneyland who wore a Pluto suit, took drugs, and licked their ears inappropriately. They showed the students newspaper clippings about the supposed Pluto child molester, and said it might be “relevant” to them. Afterwards, the researchers found that the students were soon able to recall uncomfortable experiences being licked by Pluto at Disneyland. Another group was told a different story, about a nice person in a Pluto suit, who was especially kind to children and would lick their ears with his fabric tongue..
These false memories had mild repercussions, leaving the students with a lingering negative impression not just of their childhood “experiences,” but of the Pluto character itself….
..Future dystopian government regimes take note: If you want people to hate your political enemies, just subject them to a smear campaign where they are associated with childhood traumas. You don’t even have to blame your political enemies themselves — just include their image or identity in with the false memories. Like poor Pluto, they will soon lose popularity. And your mind-controlling authoritarian dictators can continue on their merry way.-Annalee Newitz
When people are said to “beat themselves up” with self-condemning or self-judging thoughts, it isn’t just a figure of speech – severe self-judgment seems to be very much comparable to cutting or hurting oneself physically. Emotional pain activates many of the same circuits in the brain as physical pain, releases almost all of the same stress hormones, and can often be just as damaging in many ways as physical pain..
Clearly something must be rewarding or reinforcing about pain or people wouldn’t repeatedly choose in some instances to self-administer something acutely painful, like a cut or an electric shock. Almost half the people in the study published in Science “liked” or responded to the electric shock enough – or at least got something out of it – that they tried shocking themselves again..
When each of us begins to truly see and understand the specific dynamics that can drive us to create unnecessary pain in our lives, in our relationships, and in ourselves – to use our pain, in effect, as a drug – we can overcome any unhealthy or destructive pattern, and connect more fully to the healthiest, most vital, and most loving parts of ourselves. –John Montgomery
Most manipulative individuals have 4 common characteristics:
1. They know how to detect your weaknesses.
2. Once found, they use your weaknesses against you.
3. Through their shrewd machinations, they convince you to give up something of yourself in order to serve their self-centered interests.
4. In work, social, and family situations, once a manipulator succeeds in taking advantage of you, he or she will likely repeat the violation until you put a stop to the exploitation.
mental or emotional stability or composure, especially under tension or strain; calmness; equilibrium.
There is no one specific trigger, but there are many contributing factors and high risk behaviors that contribute to the addictions spectrum disorders.
- Physiological Factors – Pre-natal substance use exposure, genetic predisposition, psycho-pharmacology of the substance being use, and the person’s body ability to tolerate the substance.
- Psychological Factors – Stress/distress, anxiety, depression, and physical/psychological pain all increases one’s likelihood of using substances
- Social – Exposure to substance use in one’s family, community, or even one’s job are possible contributing factors
- Spiritual – Loss of purpose, hope, or struggling with the meaning of it all.
…imagine that business experts, such as other CEOs, are asked to comment on the reputation of the chief executive of a company. They are keenly aware of whether the company has recently been thriving or failing. As we saw earlier in the case of Google, this knowledge generates a halo. The CEO of a successful company is likely to be called flexible, methodical, and decisive. Imagine that a year has passed and things have gone sour. The same executive is now described as confused, rigid, and authoritarian. Both descriptions sound right at the time: it seems almost absurd to call a successful leader rigid and confused, or a struggling leader flexible and methodical.
“Indeed, the halo effect is so powerful that you probably find yourself resisting the idea that the same person and the same behaviors appear methodical when things are going well and rigid when things are going poorly. Because of the halo effect, we get the causal relationship backward: we are prone to believe that the firm fails because its CEO is rigid, when the truth is that the CEO appears to be rigid because the firm is failing. This is how illusions of understanding are born. -Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow
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